20 “And you shall not mistreat an alien or oppress him, for you were aliens in the land of Egypt.
21 “You shall not oppress any widow or orphan. 22 If you oppress them at all, and they cry out to me, I will certainly hear their cry. 23 My anger will be aroused, and I will kill you with the sword; your wives will become widows and your children fatherless.
24 “If you lend money to any of my people, to the needy person who is among you, you shall not behave toward him like a moneylender; you shall not charge him interest. 25 If you take your neighbor’s cloak as security, until sunset you shall return it to him, 26 for it is his only covering; it is his garment for his body. What else will he sleep in? And it shall be that when he cries out to me, I will hear him, for I am compassionate.
John Gill’s Exposition of the Whole Bible
22:23 Your wives will become widows and your children fatherless—Be in the same circumstances with those they have injured, and therefore should consider not only the destruction that would come upon themselves, being cutoff by the sword, but the case of their families; and how, could they be sensible of it, they would like to have their wives and children used as they have used the widows and fatherless.
22:20 Or oppress him—By robbing [him of his] money.—[From Mechilta, Jonathan]
For you were aliens in the land of Egypt—If you taunt him, he can also taunt you and say to you, “You too emanate from aliens.” Do not reproach your neighbor with a fault that is also yours (Mechilta, B.M. 59b). Every expression of an alien (גֵּר) means a person who was not born in that country but has come from another country to sojourn there.
22:23 Your wives will become widows—From the implication of what is said—“and I will kill you”—do I not know that your wives will become widows and your children fatherless? Rather, this is another curse, namely that the wives will be bound in living widowhood—there will be no witnesses to their husbands’ deaths, and [thus] they will be forbidden to remarry. The children will be fatherless because the court will not allow them to have their fathers’ property, since they do not know whether they died or were captured.—[From Mechilta, B.M. 38b]
22:24 To any of my people—That you shall not behave toward him [the borrower] in a demeaning manner if you lend to him, for he is [a member of] my people.—[From Tanchuma 15]
You shall not behave toward him like a moneylender—You shall not demand it of him forcibly (Tanchuma 9, Exod. Rabbah 31:6). If you know that he does not have [the money to repay you], do not appear to him as if you have lent to him, but as if you have ‘not lent to him; i.e., do not embarrass him.—[From B.M. 75b]
22:25 Until sunset you shall return it to him—[For] the entire day you shall return it to him until the sun sets, and when the sun sets you may again take it until the next morning arrives. This verse speaks of a garment worn by day, which he does not need at night.—[From Mechilta, B.M. 114b]
22:26 For it is his only covering—This is a cloak.—[From Mechilta]
His garment—This is a shirt.—[From Mechilta]
What else will he sleep in?—[This comes] to include a spread.—[From Mechilta]