Exo 22:20-26

20 “And you shall not mistreat an alien or oppress him, for you were aliens in the land of Egypt.

21 “You shall not oppress any widow or orphan. 22 If you oppress them at all, and they cry out to me, I will certainly hear their cry. 23 My anger will be aroused, and I will kill you with the sword; your wives will become widows and your children fatherless.

24 “If you lend money to any of my people, to the needy person who is among you, you shall not behave toward him like a moneylender; you shall not charge him interest. 25 If you take your neighbor’s cloak as security, until sunset you shall return it to him, 26 for it is his only covering; it is his garment for his body. What else will he sleep in? And it shall be that when he cries out to me, I will hear him, for I am compassionate.

John Gill’s Exposition of the Whole Bible

22:23 Your wives will become widows and your children fatherless—Be in the same circumstances with those they have injured, and therefore should consider not only the destruction that would come upon themselves, being cutoff by the sword, but the case of their families; and how, could they be sensible of it, they would like to have their wives and children used as they have used the widows and fatherless.

Rashi’s Commentary

22:20 Or oppress him—By robbing [him of his] money.—[From Mechilta, Jonathan]

For you were aliens in the land of Egypt—If you taunt him, he can also taunt you and say to you, “You too emanate from aliens.” Do not reproach your neighbor with a fault that is also yours (Mechilta, B.M. 59b). Every expression of an alien (גֵּר) means a person who was not born in that country but has come from another country to sojourn there.

22:23 Your wives will become widows—From the implication of what is said—“and I will kill you”—do I not know that your wives will become widows and your children fatherless? Rather, this is another curse, namely that the wives will be bound in living widowhood—there will be no witnesses to their husbands’ deaths, and [thus] they will be forbidden to remarry. The children will be fatherless because the court will not allow them to have their fathers’ property, since they do not know whether they died or were captured.—[From Mechilta, B.M. 38b]

22:24 To any of my people—That you shall not behave toward him [the borrower] in a demeaning manner if you lend to him, for he is [a member of] my people.—[From Tanchuma 15]

You shall not behave toward him like a moneylender—You shall not demand it of him forcibly (Tanchuma 9, Exod. Rabbah 31:6). If you know that he does not have [the money to repay you], do not appear to him as if you have lent to him, but as if you have ‘not lent to him; i.e., do not embarrass him.—[From B.M. 75b]

22:25 Until sunset you shall return it to him—[For] the entire day you shall return it to him until the sun sets, and when the sun sets you may again take it until the next morning arrives. This verse speaks of a garment worn by day, which he does not need at night.—[From Mechilta, B.M. 114b]

22:26 For it is his only covering—This is a cloak.—[From Mechilta]

His garment—This is a shirt.—[From Mechilta]

What else will he sleep in?—[This comes] to include a spread.—[From Mechilta]

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Psa 18:1-4

1 For the director of music. A Psalm of David the servant of ADONAI, who sang to ADONAI the words of this song in the day that ADONAI delivered him from the hand of all his enemies and from the hand of Sha’ul. 2 And he said:

I love you, ADONAI, my strength. 3 ADONAI is my rock and my fortress and my deliverer; my God, my strength, in whom I will trust. My shield and the horn of my salvation, and my stronghold. 4 I call on ADONAI, who is worthy to be praised, and I am saved from my enemies.



Albert Barnes’ Notes on the Bible

18:2 I love you, Adonai—This verse is not found in the song in 2Sa 22. It appears to have been added after the first composition of the psalm, either by David as expressive of his ardent love for Adonai in view of his merciful interpositions in his behalf, and on the most careful and most mature review of those mercies, or by the collector of the Psalms when they were adapted to purposes of public worship, as a proper commencement of the psalm—expressive of the feeling which the general tenor of the psalm was fitted to inspire. It is impossible now to determine by whom it was added; but no one can doubt that it is a proper commencement of a psalm that is designed to recount so many mercies. It is the feeling which all should have when they recall the goodness of God to them in their past lives.

18:3 And my deliverer—Delivering or rescuing me from my enemies.

In whom I will trust—That is, I have found him to be such a refuge that I could trust in him, and in view of the past I will confide in him always.

18:4 I call on Adonai—The idea here is, that he would constantly call on Adonai. In all times of trouble and danger he would go to him, and invoke his aid. The experience of the past had been such as to lead him to put confidence in him in all time to come. He had learned to flee to him in danger, and he had never put his trust in him in vain. The idea is, that a proper view of God’s dealings with us in the past should lead us to feel that we may put confidence in him in the future.

And I am saved from my enemies—Ever onward, and at all times. He had had such ample experience of his protection that he could confide in him as one who would deliver him from all his foes.

John Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible

18:4 And I am saved from my enemies—Which was founded on past experience of God’s goodness to him in distress, when he called on him, as the next words show.

Rashi’s Commentary

18:1 In the day ADONAI delivered him etc.—When he became old and all his troubles had already passed over him and he was delivered from them.

The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

18:3 Strength—Heb. rock.

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Psa 18:30-51

30 For by you I can advance against a troop; and by my God I can scale a wall. 31 As for God, his way is perfect; the word of ADONAI is flawless. He is a shield to all who take refuge in him. 32 For who is God but ADONAI? And who is the Rock except our God? 33 It is God who arms me with strength and he makes my way perfect. 34 He makes my feet like the feet of hinds, and sets me on my high places. 35 He trains my hands for battle so that my arms can bend a bow of bronze. 36 You have given me the shield of your victory, and your right hand sustains me; and you have treated me with great humility. 37 You broaden my path beneath me, so my ankles did not turn. 38 I pursued my enemies and overtook them, and I did not turn back till they were destroyed. 39 I crushed them so that they could not rise; they fell under my feet. 40 For you have armed me with strength for battle; you have subdued under me those that rose up against me. 41 And of my enemies, you have given me the back of their necks, and I destroyed those who hated me. 42 They cried for help, but there was no one to save themeven to ADONAI, but he did not answer them. 43 Then beat them as fine as dust before the wind; I poured them out like mud in the streets. 44 You have delivered me from the attacks of the people; and you have made me the head of nations; a people whom I do not know serve me. 45 As soon as they hear of me, they obey me; foreigners shall lie to me. 46 Foreigners shall wither, and they come trembling from their strongholds. 47 ADONAI lives! Blessed be my Rock, and exalted be the God of my salvation! 48 It is God who avenges me, and subdues peoples under me, 49 who delivers me from my enemies. You have exalted me even above those that rise against me; from the violent man you have rescued me. 50 Therefore I will give thanks to you among the nations, ADONAI, and I will sing praises to your name. 51 He gives great victories to his king; and he shows kindness to his anointed, to David and his descendants forever.

Rashi’s Commentary

18:30 For by you—By your assurance.

18:31 Flawless—Pure. He promises and He does.

18:33 And he makes my way perfect—He removed all obstacles from my way until it became perfect and paved.

18:34 He makes my feet like the feet of hinds—The feet of the females stand straighter than those of the males.

18:36 And you have treated me with great humility—You have dealt with me with great humility.

18:41 You have given me the back of their necks—They would turn the back of their necks to me and flee.

18:42 They cried for help—To their idols.

But there was no one to save them—Because it [their prayer] has no power, and they return and call upon ADONAI, but he does not answer them.

18:44 You have made me the head of nations—For whom there is no punishment.

18:45 As soon as they hear—Even in my absence, as long as they hear my message.

They obey me—They shall give heed to my bidding and obey my orders.

Shall lie to me—Out of fright.

18:47 ADONAI lives—He who does all this for me.

18:48 Who avenges me—Who gives me strength to avenge myself upon my enemies.

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Mat 22:34-40

The Great Mitzvah

34 But when the P’rushim heard that Yeshua had silenced the Tz’dukim, they got together. 35 One of them who was a Torah expert, asked him a sh’eilah, testing him: 36 “Rabbi, which is the great mitzvah in the Torah?” 37 Yeshua said to him: ” ‘You shall love Adonai your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind.’ 38 This is the first and foremost mitzvah. 39 And the second is like it: ‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself.’ 40 On these two mitzvot hang all the Torah and the Prophets.”



Albert Barnes’ Notes on the Whole Bible

22:34 The P’rushim … got together—That is, either to rejoice that their great rivals, the Tz’dukim, had been so completely silenced, or to lay a new plan for ensnaring him, or perhaps both. They would rejoice that the Tz’dukim had been confounded, but they would not be the less desirous to involve Yeshua in difficulty. They therefore endeavored, probably, to find the most difficult question in dispute among themselves, and proposed it to him to perplex him.

22:35 Testing him—Trying him. Proposing a question to test his knowledge of the Torah.

John Gill’s Exposition of the Whole Bible

22:35 Asked him a sh’eilah, testing him—He put a difficult and knotty sh’eilah to him, and thereby making a trial of his knowledge and understanding of the Torah; and laying a snare for him, to entrap him if he could, and expose him to the people, as a very ignorant man: and delivered it in the following form.

22:37 Yeshua said to him—Directly, without taking time to think of it; and though he knew with what design it was put to him, yet, as an answer to it might be useful and instructive to the people, as well as silence and confound his adversaries, he thought fit to give one; and is as follows, being what is expressed in Deu 6:5.

Whedon’s Commentary on the Bible

22:34 They got together—They collect into a consulting group.

22:35 One of them—Who seems to have been of their party, and knew too their plots and plans. He will try Yeshua with a profound sh’eilah, and fairly see what is his depth.

22:37 Yeshua said—Yeshua gave him not only that which is greatest, but that which, if properly kept, will indeed keep the whole.

Heart … soul … mind—All the affections and powers of the man.

22:39 Second is like it—Like in being founded in love; like in being in fact included in the first. For, if we love God completely, we shall perform all our duties to his creatures.

22:40 On these two … hang—They are the statement of that temper of heart from which we all acknowledge that the keeping of all the Torah and Prophets would arise.

Torah and the Prophets—The Torah given by God, with the Prophets to enforce and predict the consequences of obedience or infringement.

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1Th 1:5-10

5 For our Good News did not come to you in word only, but also in power, and in the Ruach HaKodesh and with deep conviction; just as you know what kind of men we were among you for your sake. 6 And you became imitators of us and of the Lord, having welcomed the message in severe suffering with the joy of the Ruach HaKodesh. 7 So that you became a model to all the believers in Macedonia and Achaia. 8 For the message of the Lord has rang out from you not only in Macedonia and Achaia, but also in every place—your trust toward God has gone forth, so that we do not need to say anything, 9 for they themselves report about us what kind of reception we had to you, and how you turned to God from idols to serve the living and true God, 10 and to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead—that is Yeshua, who rescues us from the coming wrath.

Albert Barnes’ Notes on the Whole Bible

1:8 Trust toward God—Fidelity toward God. They showed that they had a true belief in God and in the truth which he had revealed.

So that we do not need to say anything—That is, wherever we go, we need say nothing of the fact that you have been turned to the Lord, or of the character of your piety. These things are sufficiently made known by those who come from you, by those who visit you, and by your zeal in spreading the true religion.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

1:5 Our Good News—Namely, the Good News which we preached.

1:6 And you—Answering to “For our Good News,” 1Th 1:5.

1:8 Toward God—No longer directed to idols.

So that we do not need to say anything—To them in praise of your trust; “for (1Th 1:9) they themselves” (the people in Macedonia, Achaia, and in every place) know it already.

David Guzik Commentary on the Bible

1:5 For our Good News did not come to you in word only—The Good News is not a matter of mere words. In modern culture there is an overflow of information or entertainment that often only amounts to mere words. Yet the Good News is more that words, it also has power.

Whedon’s Commentary on the Bible

1:5 Kind of men—Our conduct and character filled out the programme of our preaching. We lived the Good News as well as spoke it. For your sake and for no success or interest of our own.

1:8 Message of the Lord—The doctrine of the Good News to which you were reported to be converted. Men learned what the Good News is in being informed that you had embraced it.

Gone forth—As remarkable news.

Not need to say—All our boasts of your conversion are anticipated by the statements of others on every hand.

1:9 They themselves—The above anticipators, implied but not expressed.

Living and true—In contrast to the idols, which were lifeless and false.

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Simchat Torah Part 1 (Gen 1:1-10)

Simchat Torah Part 1 (Gen 1:1-10)

The Beginning

1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. 2 The earth was formless and empty,and darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the surface of the waters. 3 And God said, “Let there be light,” and there was light. 4 God saw the light, that it was good, andGod separated the light from the darkness. 5God called the light “day,” and…

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Simchat Torah Part 2 (Gen 1:14-23)

Simchat Torah Part 2 (Gen 1:14-23)

14 Then God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night, and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years; 15 and they shall be for lights in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth”; and it was so. 16 God made the two great lights, the greater light to govern the day, and the lesser light to govern the night; he made t…

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Simchat Torah Part 4 (Gen 1:24-2:3)

Simchat Torah Part 4 (Gen 1:24-2:3)

24 And God said, “Let the land bring forth living creatures according to their kind: cattle and creeping things and the beasts of the earth, each according to its kind.” And it was so. 25 And God made the beasts of the earth according to their kind, the cattle according to their kind, and all the creeping creatures of the ground according to their kind. And God saw that it was good. 26 Then God…

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Bereshit 1st Portion 4 (Gen 1:24-2:3)

Bereshit 1st Portion 4 (Gen 1:24-2:3)

Originally posted on 58th Century Version:

24 And God said, “Let the land bring forth living creatures according to their kind: cattle and creeping things and the beasts of the earth, each according to its kind.” And it was so. 25 And God made the beasts of the earth according to their kind, the cattle according to their kind, and all the creeping creatures of the ground according to their kind.…

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Shemini Atzeret Part 1 (Deu 15:1-11)

Shemini Atzeret Part 1 (Deu 15:1-11)

The Year of Sh’mittah

1 At the end of every seven years you shall grant a remission of debts. 2 This is the manner of sh’mittah: to release the hand of every creditor from what he has loaned to his neighbor; he shall not exact it of his neighbor and his brother, because ADONAI’s remission has been proclaimed. 3 From a foreigner you may exact it, but your hand shall release whatever of yours is…

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